United Kingdom, island country located off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe. The United Kingdom comprises the whole of the island of Great Britain—which contains England, Wales, and Scotland—as well as the northern portion of the island of Ireland. The name Britain is sometimes used to refer to the United Kingdom as a whole. The capital is London, which is among the world’s leading commercial, financial, and cultural centres. Other major cities include Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester in England, Belfast and Londonderry in Northern Ireland, Edinburgh and Glasgow in Scotland, and Swansea and Cardiff in Wales. 

The origins of the United Kingdom can be traced to the time of the Anglo-Saxon king Athelstan, who in the early 10th century CE secured the allegiance of neighbouring Celtic kingdoms and became “the first to rule what previously many kings shared between them,” in the words of a contemporary chronicle. Through subsequent conquest over the following centuries, kingdoms lying farther afield came under English dominion. Wales, a congeries of Celtic kingdoms lying in Great Britain’s southwest, was formally united with England by the Acts of Union of 1536 and 1542. Scotland, ruled from London since 1603, formally was joined with England and Wales in 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. (The adjective “British” came into use at this time to refer to all the kingdom’s peoples.) Ireland came under English control during the 1600s and was formally united with Great Britain through the Act of Union of 1800. The republic of Ireland gained its independence in 1922, but six of Ulster’s nine counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. Relations between these constituent states and England have been marked by controversy and, at times, open rebellion and even warfare. These tensions relaxed somewhat during the late 20th century, when devolved assemblies were introduced in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Nonetheless, even with the establishment of a power-sharing assembly after referenda in both Northern Ireland and the Irish republic, relations between Northern Ireland’s unionists (who favour continued British sovereignty over Northern Ireland) and nationalists (who favour unification with the republic of Ireland) remained tense into the 21st century. 

The United Kingdom has made significant contributions to the world economy, especially in technology and industry. Since World War II, however, the United Kingdom’s most prominent exports have been cultural, including literature, theatre, film, television, and popular music that draw on all parts of the country. Perhaps Britain’s greatest export has been the English language, now spoken in every corner of the world as one of the leading international mediums of cultural and economic exchange.

The United Kingdom retains links with parts of its former empire through the Commonwealth. It also benefits from historical and cultural links with the United States and is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Moreover, the United Kingdom became a member of the European Union in 1973. Many Britons, however, were sometimes reluctant EU members, holding to the sentiments of the great wartime prime minister Winston Churchill, who sonorously remarked, “We see nothing but good and hope in a richer, freer, more contented European commonalty. But we have our own dream and our own task. We are with Europe, but not of it. We are linked, but not comprised. We are interested and associated, but not absorbed.” Indeed, in June 2016, in a referendum on whether the United Kingdom should remain in the EU, 52 percent of British voters chose to leave. That set the stage for the U.K. to become the first country to do so, pending the negotiations between the U.K. and the EU on the details of the separation.


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  ................................................... News Updated: 2018-02-07................................................

مائیگرنٹس کو برطانیہ سمگل کرنے والے ایک بڑے نیٹ ورک کاصفایا

لندن(OverseasNews.net) پولیس نے جرائم پیشہ کردوں کی جانب سے لوگوں کی سمگلنگ کی روک تھام کیلئے گزشتہ روز پورے انگلینڈ میں مختلف مقامات پر چھاپے مارکر کم از کم 21افراد کوگرفتار کرلیاہے ، نیشنل کرائم ایجنسی کے مطابق ان چھاپہ مار کارروائیوں میں کم وبیش350افسران نے حصہ لیا، یہ چھاپے مڈلز برو، ہارٹ لے پول، سٹاک ٹن۔ نیو کاسل ،ہیسٹنگز اور لندن کے کم وبیش 20مقامات پر مارے گئے اور اس کے نتیجے میں 21افراد کوحراست میں لے لیاگیا مشتبہ گروہ کے ارکان مائیگرنٹس سے 10ہزار پونڈ فی کس وصول کرکے لاریوں کے پیچھے چھپاکر چینل کراس کرادیتے تھے۔ پولیس نے اس کے علاوہ کار واش کرنے والے مقامات اور رہائشی علاقوںپر بھی منی لانڈرنگ میں ملوث ہونے کے شبہے میں چھاپے مارے نیشنل کرائم ایجنسی کے مطابق سمگل کئے جانے والوں میں بیشتر کرد مرد ہیں لیکن ان میں بعض فیملیز کو بھی اس طرح برطانیہ لایاگیاتھا۔ڈپٹی ڈائریکٹر ٹام ڈائو ڈال کا کہناہے کہ ہم سمجھتے ہیں کہ ہم نے سیکڑوں مائیگرنٹس کو برطانیہ سمگل کرنے والے ایک بڑے نیٹ ورک کاصفایا کردیاہے۔



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